Provide a 4 pages analysis while answering the following question: The Roles of Amino Acid R-groups in the Structures and Functions of Transmembrane Ion Channels. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. The figure above shows the unionized form of a group of amino acid called alpha (Elsevier 19). The R represents an organic substituent or a side-chain, which is specific to each of the amino acid. There is a carbon atom called ?carbon attached next to a group called carboxyl. Ion channels refer to the proteins that form pores which help to establish the small changes in voltage in cells plasma membrane, flowing down with the varying electrochemical change. Transmembrane potential refers to electrical potential difference in a biological cells interior part and exterior. This potential arises from the interaction between action of proteins containing transmembrane embedded inside it and the membrane itself. The proteins get pushed to cause change in concentration by use of ion transporter or pump. Materials and methods In order to study the ion channels, voltage clamp particularly patch clamp and RT-PCR scientific based technique used. Experimentally, ion channels catalyze the process of diffusion across membranes, and this recorded as electrical currents in units known as Pico amperes. Other methods used in this study include Partitioning methods, which commonly can be used to evaluate hydrophobicity of amino acid, surface area and chromatography method. Results Two levels of current which correspond to the open and closed state. The transition in the two conditions observed to be extremely fat to a measurement recorded of millisecond. From one level to the other, rectangular jumps produced between the two levels. The current indicated by the amplitude of the jumps. Channels show rates of ion flux up to 106 ions/sec. Channels only open in a few seconds but during this time ions flowing through the pore register thousands (Davies 255). Discussion The structural parts of proteins comprise of amino acids in chains. They normally appear linked together in different sequences forming various types of proteins. Standard group of these amino acids comprise of twenty of each amino group into polypeptides. This natural made process. A group of nine of these amino acids called essential in human beings because their creation not normally dependent on creation by man but must be taken as food. The amino acids prove to act as a substitute from nutrition fertilizers, and commonly applicable in food technology, in many industries. They have industrial applications as catalysts during production of plastics, which can be biodegraded. In the study of ion channels, their function include making possible the ions diffusion across membranes, which have biological nature. A bioelectric barrier built between the molecules, which have charges or hydrophilic, also called electrical insulators. The ion routes supply hydrophilic or high conductivity pathways in the interior of the hydrophobic. The pore structure catalyzes the transportation of molecules with charges across a medium with low dielectric. The channel of this site catalyzed normally remains to be open or closed. Where the ion shows to be associated tightly with the catalyzed site, the confrontation of open channel shows the enzyme-substrate state.
Provide a 4 pages analysis while answering the following question: The Roles of Amino Acid R-groups in the Structures and Functions of Transmembrane Ion Channels. Prepare this assignment according to
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